We can improve our youngest students’ math learning next fall and set goals for a strong elementary math recovery.
These nine tips will help schools improve students’ math learning. They include a focus on building positive mindsets, gathering information about students’ critical mathematical understandings, and using that information to target instruction.
Focus is essential, but knowing where to be flexible and where to be firm is critical.
When it comes to K-5 mathematics, teachers need to make decisions quickly as they react to the increasingly diverse needs of students. Teachers will need flexibility to respond to the needs of their students, but guidance and resources from leaders is still essential. Provide documents to help teachers understand for which topics to slow down and teach for mastery, and which topics to introduce and assess. It is difficult to say that any topics of K-5 mathematics should be skipped, but knowing what to emphasize and focus on is important.
I love how teaching math for understanding so very often comes with a smile. The ah-ha moment, when things click and lightbulbs go on, is delightful. When math is taught for understanding it is joyful. The opposite, which mathematics seems to have a particular potential for, is frustration, anger, disengagement, and avoidance.
For the fall of 2023, we need joy! Students will need opportunities to reason through problems, to think out loud, to draw to help them solve problems, and ample time for problem-solving. Teaching students to memorize the steps of algorithms they do not understand does not help them in the short or long run. One problem well understood is worth a hundred misunderstood (even if some of the answers are right.)
Helping students to make sense of mathematics is central to what we must do as teachers. This means number sense, of course, but it also means communication: talking, playing, drawing, building, and story telling.
Visual models are essential for teaching for understanding. It is no coincidence that to say “I see,” means, “I understand.” Nowhere is this more true than in the world of mathematics where spatial reasoning is often interwoven with the concepts being taught. There are many great tools out there (and in your classrooms) to help with this; here are a few links to some great (and free) resources: PhET, Math Learning Center Apps, Visual Patterns.
Play games, watch, listen, and take notes. Card, dice, and spinner games are not only fun, but great ways for students to get to know one another, talk meaningfully about mathematics, engage with and practice important skills. There are many great games out there. The Math Learning Center put out a wonderful set of ideas during the pandemic that include some very fun games.
If you can find a copy of Everyday Mathematics Teacher’s Guide to Games, you will be set for hours and hours of fun games for all levels.
One other favorite set of ideas is puzzle-like activities of Steve Wyborney. From the whimsical Splat activities to thoughtful Esti-Mysteries, these set the stage for thinking, talking, and enjoying mathematics. Integrating activities from Steve’s website is a great way to get the year started.
Use extended tasks. If you are not familiar with 3-Act tasks, Graham Fletcher’s website is the place to start learning. If you are familiar, you are likely already using some of these fantastic tasks. What a great way to start a year in mathematics, with lots of collaboration, sense making, and appropriate challenge! Have your clipboard handy to take notes of what you see your students doing well and where there is unfinished learning.
Supporting and encouraging growth mindsets is always important. Students need to believe in their own capability to learn and that the more they learn, the smarter they get. Consider using some or all of the ideas in Jo Boaler’s very popular and interesting Week of Inspirational Math.
Recovery will come differently for different students. Some students will need ample supports and tasks that are very accessible and which enable quick and early successes are important. Meanwhile, students will also be ready to grow quickly as the excitement of learning sets in.
Nrich.maths.org is a wonderful source of good ideas for creating low threshold, high ceiling tasks and classrooms. These activities can fuel elementary math recovery.
Formative assessment will be critical, however, do not sit your students down for endless pages (physical or digital) of math assessments during the first weeks of school.
Assessment does not need to happen on a computer or even with pencil and paper. Observe your students in order to understand them as learners. This observation is more important than a computer-based assessment. Take notes. Carry a clipboard. Ask questions. Sit with kids to play games and allow students to present their work to the class. Afterward, use this information to help you in your planning and collaborative work.
Do not screen students right away, but sometime late in the first month of school, universal screening is a good idea. It will help you to understand all of your students systematically and bring attention to skills and concepts that you might otherwise overlook. A systematic screening of the students in a school also can provide a helpful framework for coordinating efforts and setting meaningful, timely goals for targeted instruction. It helps to inform small group work, planning for pre-teaching, and targeted instruction efforts.
Universal screening is a critical component of MTSS/RtI systems and will help you understand if students are ready for grade-level work. I lead the open-source K-6 Universal Screeners for Number Sense (USNS) Project. The fall assessments are entirely interview-based. The math conversations help you gather information on key number sense indicators like verbal counting, one to one correspondence, mental math, operational sense, and number line knowledge.
These underlying skills and concepts act as the mental glue for other ideas. These number sense skills and concepts make the above games accessible and engaging. Number sense lays the groundwork for engagement, for communicating, and for enjoying mathematics.
Support another year of elementary math recovery and accelerated learning for all students. When teachers foster positive perceptions of mathematics and gather high-quality information to determine if students are ready for grade-level work, your classrooms will be joyful and students will be set up for success.
David Woodward is an educator with more than 25 years of experience as a classroom teacher and district leader in math education. He founded Forefront Education to help educators better understand and report student learning with meaningful assessment data. David recently retired as a math coach at Boulder Valley School District in Colorado in June 2020. He leads the Universal Screeners for Number Sense (USNS) Project (formerly known as the BVSD K-5 Math Screeners). Read more.
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The Universal Screeners for Number Sense (USNS) assessments are interview-based and pencil and paper K-6 math screeners designed by teachers to assess for students' number sense. This open-source project provides free, high-quality assessment tools to over 9,000 schools in the US and internationally. Learn more and access your free copy below.